by Jonathan Cave, Linnean Solutions — September 2016 — Today, more than ever, the design and construction process has become more collaborative, emphasizing top-down and bottom-up creative processes that continuously engage the stakeholders during each stage. This process has created a new model of landscape design that has led to more efficient, creative, robust, and sustainable projects. It is called integrative design, and understanding its techniques will allow for more sustainable projects and lowered costs.
The Integrative Design Process
The integrative design process is a management strategy that engages all stakeholders in a continuous, fluid dialogue at each stage of the process. This dynamic engagement yields cost-effective designs, while maintaining the vision of the developer or owner. The power of this strategy lies in its ability to translate ideas and goals across all stakeholders, create a holistic design, decrease inefficiencies and chances of error, and more readily and effectively adapt to unforeseen challenges and changes. This process exists at each stage of development- from the planning and programming phase, to the schematic design phase, the design development phase, the construction phase, and to the landscape/ facility performance evaluation phase.
An example of how this system could work can be seen in the construction of a water catchment and treatment facility in a new or existing development. A developer who is seeking to be more efficient with water management could use an integrated design process to maximize the system’s sustainability, while being pragmatic with the cost.
Initially the developer would begin by hiring an architect or landscape architect to manage the design and coordination between hired sub-consultants. During the initial planning and programming phase, the initial stake holders would be drawn into the process to understand and realize the goals and parameters of the developer. Concepts would be considered and shared amongst the stakeholders to create a feasible and creative solution.
Here the design team can push boundaries as a way to facilitate new ideas and to expand or to limit the desired scope of the project. Doing so will inform all those who are participating in the design process of the possibilities of exploration. Here the team can determine if the scope of the development is constrained to a rain catchment system on the roof for use within the landscape, or if the scope could be pushed to a greywater recycling system that will use a constructed wetlands to clean and recycle rainwater, as well as greywater- and, potentially, with other pairings, blackwater. Whereas initially these possibilities may not have been explored, by utilizing an integrative design process, the efficiencies and practicality of a system could be realized.
This level of dialogue between the stakeholders continues in the schematic design phase, the design development phase, and the construction phase as a means to minimize inefficiencies. Keeping all parties involved will ensure that details are practical and fully understood, that developing challenges can be quickly acknowledged and accounted for, and that changes are agreed upon by all parties to allow for responsive strategies that can keep the project at budget and on time. By using the integrative design method, each obstacle is identified and overcome when it first develops- before it can become costly.
The Benefits of Integrative Design
Using this holistic method creates many benefits for your project. Designs are often more robust because of the costs saved through efficiencies in time management and because of the dissemination of knowledge between all involved parties.
By using and integrative design management approach, your project is more likely to meet more of the criteria for LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), SITES (the Sustainable Sites Initiative), and, potentially, the LBC (Living Building Challenge). Even simply using the integrative design process will earn you a point for LEED accreditation under its New Construction rating system. In SITES, it is a prerequisite for SITES recognition.
Through integrative design, projects will be more holistic, more creative, and will be more time and cost efficient. Maximize your project by making sure to take advantage of this management structure.